Ethics and Discretion in Criminal Justice/Judge Stacie Hunter

Ethics and Discretion in Criminal Justice/Judge Stacie Hunter

Points: 100
When we look at decision makers in violations of ethical behavior in the criminal justice
system to include law enforcement, corrections and the courts, what can result if the
watchers are violating what they are supposed to be preventing?
Review the videos and articles in the Readings and Resources section of Unit 5, then
• What did the Judge Stacie Hunter do in order to be brought before the court as a
• Explain if this case was handled properly.
• There was a retrial on some of the charges. Explain if this was warranted in this
• What ethical or unethical decisions were made that lead to this event?
• Explain if the court using it’s checks, and balances resolved the issue to your
• Discuss the role that ethical misconduct plays within the legal system and the
implications of such misconduct.
• Minimum three pages in length, excluding the Title and Reference page.
• APA format, including an in-text citation for referenced works.
• At least two resources.
Be sure to read the criteria by which your work will be evaluated before you write
and again after you write.
CRJ401 – Ethics ad Discretion in Criminal Justice
© 2021 Post University, Waterbury, CT ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Evaluation Rubric for Misconduct Assignment
CRITERIA Deficient Needs
Proficient Exemplary
(0-14 Points) (15-19 Points) (20-24 Points) (25 Points)
Analysis Does not clearly
and concisely
analyzes the
ethical dilemma.
Somewhat clearly
and concisely
analyzes the
ethical dilemma.
Missing a few
Mostly clearly
and concisely
analyzes the
ethical dilemma.
Clearly and
the ethical
(0-23 Points) (24-31 Points) (32-39 Points) (40 Points)
Content Does not cover
the ethical
assertions are
not supported by
evidence; paper
is seriously
lacking in content
and detail.
Does not do an
adequate job of
covering the
ethical dilemma;
assertions are
weakly supported
by evidence.
coverage of the
ethical dilemma;
assertions are
supported by
Provides indepth
coverage of
the ethical
are clearly
(0-5 points) (6-7 points) (8-9 points) (10 points)
Resources No resources
Includes at least 1
Includes at least
2 resources.
more than 2
Less than one
page. Does not
meet page
Does not meet the
minimum page
Meets the
(0-8 points) (9-11 points) (12-14 points) (15 points)
Clear and
al Writing
and APA
Errors impede
guidelines not
followed. APA
ns have
significant errors.
Significant errors
that do not impede
presentation. Seve
ral errors in the
Few errors that
do not impede
Few errors in
the APA
Writing and
format are
and error

Andrew is a 17-year-old Caucasian male who has been seen routinely at the clinic since birth presents with his mother with severe right groin and scrotal pain that has persisted for the past four hours. He also complains of nausea but no fever or vomiting. He is currently sexually active

Aquifer assignment

Case Analysis Tool Worksheet

Student’s Name:                                                       Case ID: _AQ_27

  1. Epidemiology/Patient Profile
Andrew is a 17-year-old Caucasian male who has been seen routinely at the clinic since birth presents with his mother with severe right groin and scrotal pain that has persisted for the past four hours. He also complains of nausea but no fever or vomiting. He is currently sexually active.
Sharp and constant right groin pain x4 hours Denies fever or vomiting
Radiating pain to right scrotum Sexually active x1 year, uses condoms
Pain started after playing football Denies dysuria, urethral discharge, frequency
Swollen, tender, erythematous right scrotum Denies abdominal pain
10/10 pain scale No steroids, dietary supplements, no smoking
No palpable mass to right scrotum Nausea
No penile discharge, inguinal lymphadenopathy, or hernias Nothing has relieved the pain
Negative Prehn sign, absent blue dot sign Had similar pain a few months ago, relieved without any treatment
Absent cremasteric reflex on the right
No transillumination of the scrotum


  1. Prioritized Cues from History and PE.

 Tier 1                                                                        Tier 2                                                  Tier 3


Andrew is a 17-year-old Caucasian sexually active male with a history of viral gastroenteritis, upper respiratory infection, appendectomy, and behavioral problems. Four hours ago, while playing football, he experienced a sudden onset of severe right groin pain radiating to the right scrotum, for which he now seeks medical attention. He reports that the pain was intermittent at initially but has been consistent and severe over the past couple of hours. On a scale from 0 to 10, he rates the pain as a 10 out of 10. Six to nine months ago, the patient experienced a similar incident that spontaneously resolved. He has accompanying nausea, although he denies vomiting and fever.

 III. Problem Statement


  1. Differential Diagnosis

Leading dx:  Testicular torsion (Kaplan, 2018)

History Finding(s)                                                                             Physical Exam Finding(s)

Severe groin and scrotal pain Swollen, tender, erythematous right scrotum
Acute onset of severe pain Swollen, tender, right testicle without mass
Occurred after playing football 10/10 pain scale
Pain radiating from right groin to right scrotum Negative Prehn sign, absent blue dot sign
Nothing alleviates the pain Absent cremasteric reflex on the right
No past trauma to groin area No transillumination of the scrotum
Prior episode, resolved on its own No palpable mass to right scrotum
Sexually active male No penile discharge, inguinal lymphadenopathy, or hernias



Alternative dx:  Acute Epididymitis (Singh, 2021)


History Finding(s)                                                                             Physical Exam Finding(s)

Severe groin and scrotal pain Swollen, tender, erythematous right scrotum
Pain radiating from right groin to right scrotum Swollen, tender, right testicle without mass
Occurred after playing football 10/10 pain scale
Prior episode, resolved on its own Negative Prehn sign, absent blue dot sign
Nothing alleviates the pain Absent cremasteric reflex on the right
No past trauma to groin area No transillumination of the scrotum
Sexually active male No palpable mass to right scrotum
No penile discharge, inguinal lymphadenopathy, or hernias


Alternative dx:  Hydrocele (Brenner & Ojo, 2020)


History Finding(s)                                                                             Physical Exam Finding(s)

Physical discomfort No palpable mass to right scrotum
Swollen, tender, erythematous right scrotum


  1. Explanation of Diagnostic Plan and Treatment Plan in prioritized order:

Diagnostic Plan Rationale

Doppler ultrasonography Ultrasonography for blood flow and scrotal imaging (Cash et al., 2020). If the diagnosis is uncertain and the pain is less severe, this test can confirm testicular torsion. If testicular torsion is present, intratesticular blood flow is diminished or absent, resulting in lower echogenicity relative to asymptomatic testis (Kaplan, 2018).
History and physical A history and physical examination suggestive of testicular torsion may necessitate rapid surgical exploration without further diagnostic tests (Kaplan, 2021). In this case, only a medical history and physical examination are necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
Urinalysis Normal in 90% of testicular torsion cases (Cash et al., 2020). If abnormal, it indicates another diagnosis (such as epididymitis or orchitis) (Kaplan, 2018).
Urine Culture


To rule out urinary tract infection and epididymitis as the cause of the scrotal symptoms (Schick & Sternard, 2020).




Treatment Plan                                                                                             Rationale

Surgical Intervention Urgent referral to urologist or emergency room. Torsion of the testis is a urologic emergency necessitating surgery (Cash et al., 2020). Testicular necrosis may develop if symptoms linger longer than four to six hours (Domino et al., 2020).
Monitoring Patients should be monitored for postoperative complications, including infection, and delayed complications such as testicular atrophy and infertility (Kaplan, 2018).
Follow-Up Follow- up with urologist as recommended post procedure (Cash et al., 2020)



I have adhered to the honor system:  Yes

Student’s signature






Brenner, J. S., & Ojo, A. (2020). Causes of painless scrotal swelling in children and adolescents (A. B. Middleman, G. R. Fleisher, L. S. Baskin, & J. F. Wiley, Eds.). UpToDate.

Cash, J. C., Glass, C. A., & Mullen, J. (2020). Family practice guidelines. Springer Publishing Company.

Domino, F. J., Baldor, R. A., Berry, K., Golding, J., & Stephens, M. B. (2021). The 5-minute

clinical consult 2022. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Kaplan, G. (2018). Testicular torsion. Epocrates Web.


Ogunyemi, O. I. (2020). Testicular torsion medication. Medscape.

Schick, M. A., & Sternard, B. T. (2020). Testicular Torsion. PubMed.

Singh, A.  (2021). Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep.






The purpose of the Aquifer assignment is to teach you how to synthesize important patient information gathered during an office visit to select appropriate differentials and create subsequent diagnostic and treatment plans.

The Aquifer assignment is not a summarization of the Aquifer case, or an essay on the specific illness/disease presented.

The written portion of the Aquifer assignment should clearly outline your rationale for selecting your leading diagnosis and differentials, given the information collected for the patient presented.

While the write up needs to include an appropriately formatted title page per APA 7 guidelines, a formal introduction and conclusion are not needed.

An example outline of the written assignment should include would be as follows:

Leading Diagnosis
(this is the diagnosis for which diagnostic and treatment plan will be written)

The leading diagnosis for this patient is ****.  Leading diagnosis is supported  by patient’s presenting symptoms of ***** (citation of a Clinical Practice Guideline or Problem Specific Peer Reviewed Reference supporting findings). Supporting physical assessment findings include ****** (citation of a Clinical Practice Guideline or Problem Specific Peer Reviewed Reference supporting findings).

Differential Diagnoses (must have 2 differentials)

Differential 1 (e.g. Influeza)

The first differential in this case is **** supported by patient presentation of *** (citation of a Clinical Practice Guideline or Problem Specific Peer Reviewed Reference supporting findings). The differential is further supported by physical exam findings of **** (citation of a Clinical Practice Guideline or Problem Specific Peer Reviewed Reference supporting findings). *** is less likely however due *(here you would present s/s, history physical exam findings that rule out differential)* (citation of a Clinical Practice Guideline or Problem Specific Peer Reviewed Reference supporting findings).

Differential 2 (e.g. Viral pharyngitis)

*** is the second possible differential in this case. Differential is supported by patient’s presenting symptoms of **** (citation). Patient’s physical assessment findings of *** further support the differential however, differential is less likely due to *** (citation of a Clinical Practice Guideline or Problem Specific Peer Reviewed Reference supporting findings).


Here you would outline your diagnostic plan including any pertinent diagnostic test(s) or exam(s) indicated for diagnosis (must include citation of a Clinical Practice Guideline unless not available. If no guideline is available may use a Problem Specific Peer Reviewed Reference). Brief statement regarding why test is being used, e.g. Positive RADT results are confirmatory for GAS in pediatric patients (Clinical Practice Guideline or Problem Specific Peer Reviewed Reference citation).


Treatment Plan

*** is the first line treatment for *** (must include citation of a Clinical Practice Guideline unless not available. If no guideline is available may use a Problem Specific Peer Reviewed Reference) Any medications should include name, route, dose, and duration (Clinical Practice Guideline or Problem Specific Peer Reviewed Reference citation). Supportive measures recommended, including ***** (citation of a Clinical Practice Guideline or Problem Specific Peer Reviewed Reference supporting findings). Follow up **** (citation of a Clinical Practice Guideline or Problem Specific Peer Reviewed Reference supporting findings)



References (documented per APA 7 guidelines)


Must include an appropriate clinical practice guideline unless there is not a written guideline for diagnosis. In the case no guideline is available a peer reviewed article written on the specific diagnosis selected may be used.
















Aquifer Case Study #18 Family Medicine: Migraine Headaches without Aura



United States University

FNP 591: Common Illnesses Across the Lifespan

Professor Georgia Strong

June 01, 2022











Leading diagnosis

The leading diagnosis for S.P. is migraine headaches without aura. A diagnosis of migraine headaches without aura is supported by the patient’s report of unilateral and severe throbbing pain associated with nausea, photophobia, and hyperacusis occurring 2-3 times weekly (Cutrer, 2022).  S.P meets 5 of the ICHD-3 diagnostic criteria for migraine without aura, including 1) having 5 attacks 2) headache attacks that last 4-72 hours, 3) characteristics such as unilateral pulsating headache, 4) nausea, vomiting, and photophobia during headache, and 5) does not match other ICHD-3 diagnosis (Cutrer, 2022).

Differential Diagnoses

Differential diagnoses for this patient include cluster-type headaches and anxiety.

Cluster-Type Headaches

The first differential for S.P. is cluster-type headaches, supported by a debilitating unilateral and severe throbbing pain that’s associated with nausea, photophobia, and hyperacusis that occurs 2-3 times a week and results in the patient having to go home. However, this is ruled out due to lack of autonomic symptoms such as ptosis, miosis, lacrimation, conjunctival injection, sweating, and/or nasal congestion (May, 2022).

Another differential is headache due to anxiety supported by S.P. ‘s report of a stressful lifestyle with schooling, part time work, and recent breakup with a boyfriend who cheated. (Taylor, 2020). However, this is ruled out as the patient’s GAD-2 score was 2, testing negative (Taylor, 2020).




Diagnostic testing of MRI for migraine isn’t needed in this patient given her age of under 50 or having cognitive changes (Ng & Hanna, 2021). The patient would not need other laboratory tests given the negative physical examination (Cutrer, 2022).

Treatment Plan

S.P. ‘s migraine can be treated with oral sumatriptan 100 mg PO as needed for headaches and can be repeated in 2 hours, but do not exceed over 200 mg in a 24-hour period (Ng & Hanna, 2021). The patient can also take a combo therapy of acetaminophen 250 mg, aspirin 250 mg, and caffeine 65 mg orally PRN for tension-type headaches (Taylor, 2020). The patient should reduce her caffeine intake from other sources if it’s a trigger for her headaches.

S.P. should have a follow up appointment in 2 weeks to see if the medication worked. The patient in the meantime should keep a journal of headache triggers and patterns and reduce stressors in her life that could contribute to the tension-type headaches. She can also exercise four times a week, use relaxation therapies, and improve sleep (Schwedt & Garza, 2022).














Cutrer, M. (2020). Pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of migraine in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved June 12, 2022, from

May, A. (2022). Cluster headache: Epidemiology, clinical features, and diagnosis. UpToDate. Retrieved June 12, 2022, from

Ng, J. Y., & Hanna, C. (2021). Headache and migraine clinical practice guidelines: A systematic review and assessment of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Recommendations. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 21(1).

Schwedt, T. & Garza, I. (2020). Acute treatment of migraine in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved June 12, 2022, from

Taylor, F. (2020). Tension-type headache in adults: Acute treatment. UpToDate. Retrieved June 12, 2022, from



garment industry

garment industry

  1. What are some exploitative practices that we find in the garment industry?
  2. Why would companies send their factories overseas if they treat their workers so poorly and why would consumers still purchase from these companies?
  3. How do consumers and garment workers benefit from the garment industry?
    • Do garment workers benefit at all?
    • What are possible solutions to protect workers/better the garment industry?
    •  300-400 words, answer the questions Above.
    •  Remember, be sure to use your own words, and refer to the course materials.

The Great Hack

The Great Hack

A documentary examines the ramifications when private companies harvest online information about us. The Great Hack outlines in detail how social media sites such as Facebook and data firms such as Cambridge Analytica harvest and use people’s data to sell users things — including political candidates and agendas. By now, most Americans are aware — no matter their political leanings — that the data they give up to sites like Facebook and Twitter (as well as what they’ve purchased, their browsing history, and other personal data) is bought and used by companies that want to sell them things. But the extent to which this data harvesting has been used to reshape our world is, for many people, only beginning to come into focus.
Links to an external site.

Available on Netflix –
Links to an external site.
***I will not be grading heavily on your opinions. Rather, I will consider your ability to take ideas from the movie and at least one other external source related to the field of marketing; then synthesize the material into evidence supporting your original thoughts.

Writing Assignment
Watch Movie the movie The Great Hack (2019) on Netflix and then write a paper.
Address all these questions in your paper:
○ What was the Great hack documentary all about?
○ Discuss the idea that “data is the most valuable resource on earth”, why would this be the case?
○ Do you think that social media influences you? In what ways? How do you think your data might affect your life?
○ Are data rights human rights? Explain your point of view.
○ Do you think “psychographics” (data on large groups of people) should be classified as a “weapons-grade technology”?
■ Psychographics (Definition): the attitudes, interests, activities, personality, behaviors, values, opinions, and lifestyles of a target market.
○ In Closing, describe a moment in the film that you found particularly disturbing or moving. What was it that was especially compelling for you?
Note: that you cover each bullet point question in your paper. Make sure that I can tell you answered them, but don’t post the exact questions as headers in your paper.

The 1973 Oil Embargo

The 1973 Oil Embargo

During the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC) imposed an embargo against the United States in
retaliation for the U.S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military and to gain leverage in
the post-war peace negotiations. Arab OPEC members also extended the embargo to
other countries that supported Israel including the Netherlands, Portugal, and South
Africa. The embargo both banned petroleum exports to the targeted nations and
introduced cuts in oil production. Several years of negotiations between oil-producing
nations and oil companies had already destabilized a decades-old pricing system, which
exacerbated the embargo’s effects. The 1973 Oil Embargo acutely strained a U.S.
economy that had grown increasingly dependent on foreign oil. The efforts of President
Richard M. Nixon’s administration to end the embargo signaled a complex shift in the
global financial balance of power to oil-producing states and triggered a slew of U.S.
attempts to address the foreign policy challenges emanating from long-term
dependence on foreign oil. (Office of the Historian). Watch the clip below and answer
the questions. Refer to Ch 26, The End of the Golden Age subsection for more
information. Watch this video

1. Are economic or resource embargoes an effective way to make a political
point? How much of an impact did this have on the US in 1973 and did the
OPEC nations get their point across through their political action against the
support of Israel?
2. Why at this point in time was the US so susceptible to resource embargo?
Consider other embargo the US instituted like that against Cuba for decades.
Does this video give a wider, different perspective of those actions?
3. Some people argue in favor of opening protected oil reserves in the US
national parks to drilling while others focus on more sustainable sources of
clean energy. Is the web of globalization the US is tied into bound to create a
scenario like this again or is there a way to maintain energy independence?
Sufficient = INITIAL POST should contain 300 words, substantive and addresses the
prompt. Each of the the required secondary posts and commentary should EACH be at
least 150 words of relevant and substantial responses

Cold War

Cold War

The Cold War came to an end when the last war of Soviet occupation ended in
Afghanistan, the Berlin Wall came down in Germany, and a series of mostly peaceful
revolutions swept the Soviet Bloc states of eastern Europe in 1989. Check out this short
video and refer to the introduction of Ch 27 From Triumph to Tragedy for more
information. Watch this video

1. What were the major factors of causes that led to the end of the Cold War?
Name three and explain how they connect to each other (the connection is
the part that gets you credit here).
2. What was the end result of the Cold War for the US in 1991? What were the
positive outcomes or negative outcomes of being the only remaining
superpower from the Cold War era?
3. Given a substantial amount of resources were allocated to fighting the Cold
War in a myriad of ways, where did the US military industrial complex focus
after the dissolution of the Soviet Union? What region of the world became
targeted in the 1990s?
Sufficient =300 words, substantive and addresses the prompt

Case: The IT system that could not deliver

Case: The IT system that could not deliver


 Analysis Questions

1. Describe the nature of the insurance industry? What are the competitive priorities in this industry? What role does information technology play in this industry?

2.Describe Lenox’s information technology capabilities. How sophisticated was it in using IT when Diana took charge? How sophisticated is it now?

3.What factors lead to the current situation? Who is responsible for it? What issues does this raise regarding the responsibilities of CIOs.

4.What advice would you give Diana? What advise would you give Fontana and Bennett?


Business Plan for the Entrepreneur 1

Business Plan for the Entrepreneur 1

BA (Hons) Culinary Arts – Level 6
Module Code 6HO722
FALL 2022 Intake – Term 6
Student Name……………………………………………………………

This module conforms fully to the relevant UG regulatory framework.
Full details of the University of Derby Academic Regulations (3Rs) can be found at:
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Module Title Business Plan for the Entrepreneur 1

Credit Value 10
Assessments Type LO % Hand in
CW 1
1500 words Feasibility Study 1, 2, 3,
100% Week 10
Summative assessment
and marking criteria
Can be found with the assessment instructions and it is
important that these criteria are referred to when preparing and
writing your assessments.
Formative assessment Students will be expected to work in class on various aspects of
the weekly activities and then to translate the tools, techniques
and learning into the business that is being planned. Students
will review their progress through self and peer assessments,
discussions, and meetings with industry professionals. The
students will present their business plan presentation to a
representative of the Ritz Paris in the following module.
Teaching, learning and
assessment overview
This module is delivered in a series of lectures and exercises
will give the theoretical framework on which to develop a food
and beverage business. It will include examples and case
studies on which to develop a feasibility study for your business
and then a business plan that is finally pitched to a panel of
financiers. Private research will be essential to ensure that you
read widely and understand the processes required to assess
this venture.
Student hours of study Total 400 hrs
Hours breakdown: Class Contact 40 hrs. Directed and Independent Study 80hrs.
Return of work,
feedback and
provisional marks will
be viewable at the
submission point.
Assessment 1 – General feedback will be given in class and
then on your written work based on identified criteria in week 1
Term 7
If serious circumstances beyond a student’s control affect their ability to complete an
assessment they may submit a claim for Exceptional Extenuating Circumstances. This
must be accompanied by evidence from a competent professional with knowledge of the
circumstances, and all work done to date, by the original assessment submission
deadline. Such applications will be considered by an EEC panel. It is important that
students familiarise themselves with regulations concerning late submission, for
example, EECs will not be granted for poor time management, minor ailments,
computer failure or other such reasons. Please see
All marks are provisional until ratified by an Examination Board and the External Examiner.
3 | P a g e
This module is specifically designed to help students develop problem identification, problem
prioritizing, and problem-solving skills; specifically, the development of skills to understand
and apply the cause and effect relationships between performance measures and their
causes. It will explore entrepreneurship and business from a strategic level. Students will
use their culinary knowledge, skill, and creative thinking to compose an innovative business
plan based on their personal culinary focus. Students will be able to understand the
relevance and importance of undertaking secondary and primary research within the culinary
The module examines procedures, law, and financial accounting and entrepreneurship
considerations. The student will be exposed to business idea generation strategies;
analytical procedures, business plan components, financial planning requirements, and
improve presentation skills. The module is designed around researching, idea generating
and the creation of a feasibility report that will lead to a Business Plan Project.
On successful completion of this unit students will be able to:
1. Critically examine the different functional areas impacting the food and beverage
service industry and the related decision making;
2. Critically evaluate the feasibility of various components of a food and beverage
related to the business plan, and gain an understanding of the various constraints
placed upon business decisions due to the external environment;
3. Prepare and present a well-researched business idea and feasibility study
relating to a food and beverage business;
4. Persuade, negotiate and convince a third party of the benefits of a tourism or
culinary related business concept and opportunity.
The following key skill competencies may be developed and could be used for any portfolio
 Demonstrate autonomy in planning and managing resources and processes
within broad guidelines in significant and extended academic tasks (planning and
management of learning);
 Interact effectively within a learning or professional group, with both a broad and
a self critical awareness (interactive and group skills);
 Negotiate in a learning and professional context and manage conflict (interactive
and group skills);
 Be confident and flexible in identification and definitions of problems and
application of appropriate knowledge and skills to their solutions (managing tasks
and solving problems).
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This module may cover the theoretical and practical aspects of some of the following:
 The Business Plan: An Overview;
 Business Models;
 The chef as an entrepreneur: thinking outside of the kitchen;
 Opportunity, feasibility and Market Analysis;
 The Entrepreneurial Solution and Concept;
 Industry, target customer and Competitive analysis;
 Feasibility Studies;
 The Product Development Process and Operations;
 Product/ Service plan;
 The Offering;
 Developing and Presentation of a Business Plan;
 The Marketing and Sales Plan;
 The Product Development Process and Operations;
 The Management Team and Organizational Structure;
 Critical Risks and Problems;
 Financial Planning;
 Financing sources;
 Writing an Executive summary plus use of Appendices
Students are recommended to utilise the library resources and review a wide range of
Blackwell, E. (2012) How to prepare a business plan, 5th ed, London, Kogan Page.
Calvin, R. (2004) Entrepreneurial management, London, McGraw-Hill.
Dess, G. (2014) Strategic management: Creating a competitive advantage, London,
Drucker, P. (2001) Innovation and entrepreneurship: Practice and principles, Oxford,
Keegan, W.J. and Green, M.C. (2014) Global marketing, 5th ed, London, Pearson Prentice
Kotler, P. and Keller, K.L. (2014) Marketing management, 14th ed, London, Pearson
Prentice Hall.
Lee-Ross, D. and Lashley, C. (2009) Entrepreneurship and small business management in
the hospitality industry, Amsterdam, Butterworth-Heinemann.
Lovelock, C. and Wirtz, J. (2011) Services marketing: People, technology, strategy, 7th ed,
Upper Saddle River, NJ, Pearson Education.
Morrison, A.J., Rimmington, M. and Williams, C. (1999) Entrepreneurship in the hospitality,
tourism and leisure industries, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann.
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Morritt, R.M. (2007) Segmentation strategies for hospitality managers: target marketing for
competitive advantage, New York, Haworth Press.
Rollinson, D. (2008) Organisational behaviour and analysis: An integrated approach, 4th ed,
Harlow, UK, Prentice Hall.
Ryan, J.D. and Hiduke, G.P. (2008) Small business: an entrepreneur’s business plan
London: South-Western.
Sloan D. (2004) Culinary taste: Consumer behaviour in the international restaurant sector,
Amsterdam, Elsevier-Butterworth-Heinemann. (ebook)
Slocum, J.W. and Hellriegel, D. (2009) Principles of organizational behaviour, 12th ed,
Mason, OH, South Western Cengage.
Stokes, D.R and Wilson, N. (2010) Small business management


Just Mercy Book Reflection Paper

Just Mercy Book Reflection Paper

For this class, students are required to write a book reflection of the non-fiction book, Just
Mercy by Bryan Stevenson. The purpose of reading the book is for students to think critically
and analyze the death penalty and racial disparity in the criminal justice system.
INSTRUCTIONS: Please refer to the next pages for tips about how to write a good book
review. Simply writing about what the book is about is NOT sufficient. Below is a list of
prompts to help you get started. Please note that these questions are not meant to be an
exhaustive list of question to consider when writing your reflection; they are simply prompts to
help you start writing.
1. Before reading the book, you may want to consider what you already know about the topic
from past experience, research or courses. This will allow you to better gauge how the book
has shaped your opinion about this topic. What is the author’s main goal in writing this
2. Explain the background of an event. Is the author trying to raise awareness about a particular
issue? What are the author’s main points? What kind of evidence does the author provide to
make her points? How convincing is this evidence?
3. What was the book about? Please provide a brief summary of the book.
4. What did you find most interesting about this book?
5. What parts of the book did you agree with (if any) and why do you agree?
6. What parts of the book did you disagree with (if any) and why do you disagree? 6.) Is there
anything that you think could have made this book better?
7. How do the issues and themes discussed in the book relate to class materials (i.e. textbook
reading, lectures, class discussions, etc.)?
8. What did you learn from this book?
9. How has this book shaped your view on the issues discussed?
10. Readers from varied backgrounds will approach this book with different knowledge and
experiences. Did Stevenson’s examples resonate with you, or were you shocked? Is the book
an eye-opener for you, or validation of what you already knew? Consider how your reaction
would differ if you were of a different race or class; were the victim of a serious crime; or
had personal experience with the justice system.
11. What are some policy and practice implications of the information discussed in this book? In
other words, what can policymakers, criminal justice practitioners, the legislature, or the
public in general do to fix the issue(s) discussed?
Specific Questions:
12. As a result of his extensive work with low income and incarcerated people, Stevenson concludes
that “the opposite of poverty is not wealth; the opposite of poverty is justice” (18). What does this
statement mean? What examples in the book inform Stevenson’s position on poverty and justice?
What is justice? What does ‘Just Mercy’ mean?
13. What famous novel was written in Monroe County, AL, and how is it relevant to Just Mercy?
14. What is the importance of the 1986 Batson v. Kentucky ruling?
15. In your opinion, who is most to blame for Walter’s conviction?
16. How does the race of the victim come into decisions about sentencing?
17. Should wrongfully imprisoned people receive financial restitution from the state? If so, how should
the amount be determined?
18. According to Stevenson in Chapter 16, what are the four institutions in American history that have
shaped our approach to race and justice? Do you agree?
Interwoven throughout the book in alternating chapters not related toWalter McMillian, the author also
discusses other issues within the juvenile and adult criminal justice systems. For example, one chapter
discusses mental health, mothers, and juveniles. Choose a chapter not related to the main character
Walter McMillian, and discuss the some of issues in other cases the author have fought for justice.
Below are questions from two chapters not related to Walter McMillian that you can choose if one of the
chapters sparked your interest.
Chapter 4
• When do judge overrides increase and for what reason?
• Define the 2002 Supreme Court case of Atkins v. Virginia.
• Alabama’s capital statute requires that murder be intentional in order for a defendant to be
eligible for the death penalty. Why is this relevant in Duncan’s case?
• Duncan was a U.S. war veteran who suffered tremendous mental trauma while serving our
nation. How should that be factored into his defense?
Chapter 8
• What evidence did criminologists have in 1991 to support their “super-predator” theory?
• How would you have changed the ruling in each of Trina, Ian, and Antonio’s sentencing?
• Each one of them came from difficult home situations. Should that make a difference in their
Minimum of 3-4 pages (not including the title page and reference page)
APA Format (See
Times New Roman/size 12 font
1 inch margins
Body: double spaced
In addition to the Just Mercy book and the required course textbook, you are required
to use at least one additional scholarly source to support your opinion on the issue. You
must cite your sources in-text and in a reference page.

models for cell growth

models for cell growth

Q2 (33pts)
In this question we model the volume of a cell as it grows and divides. It is extremely important for the cell size post division to be stable across generations. Two simple models for cell growth are:
𝑑𝑡 = ൜ 𝜆 linear growth
𝜆𝑉(𝑡) exponential growth
In the first case, cell volume increases linearly with time. This is hypothesized to be a result of
growth-limiting factor such as nutrient import which is independent of cell size [1]. In the second case, the growth rate is proportional to cell size – assumed to be a consequence from larger cells having a proportionally increased capacity for metabolism compared to smaller cells.
The volume of the cell just prior to division is then 𝑉௣௥௘ = 𝑉଴ +𝜆𝑇 or 𝑉௣௥௘ =𝑉଴𝑒ఒ். 𝑉଴ is the
initial cell volume, 𝜆 is the growth rate, and 𝑇 is the period of the cell cycle. 𝜆 does not depend
on 𝑉. One way the cell can ensure cell size stability is by regulating 𝑇 in response to sensing
different initial cell volumes 𝑉଴
. That is to say, the volume dependent growth response is 𝑔(𝑉)=𝜆𝑇(𝑉). Let 𝑓 be the volume partition factor. 𝑓=2 means the cell divides in half during
cytokinesis. For our model to accommodate asymmetric cell division 𝑓 can be ≠ 2. The function 𝜙(𝑉௡) relates the volume in the current generation to the volume in the next generation.
𝑉௡ାଵ =
𝑉௡ + 𝑔(𝑉௡)
𝑓 = 𝜙(𝑉௡) linear growth
𝑉௡ାଵ =
𝑓 = 𝜙(𝑉௡) exponential growth
Let us further assume that there exists a fixed point at the average cell volume <𝑉>, i.e.
𝜙(< 𝑉 >) =< 𝑉 >, and that our cells do not deviate substantially from <𝑉>. In this case we
can approximate 𝜙(𝑉) near < 𝑉 > using a technique called Taylor-expansion.
𝑉௡ାଵ = 𝜙(𝑉௡
) ≈ 𝜙(< 𝑉 >) +
(𝑉௡−<𝑉 >)
𝑉௡ାଵ = 𝜙(𝑉௡
) ≈< 𝑉 > +
(𝑉௡−<𝑉 >)
𝑉௡ାଵ−< 𝑉 > =
(𝑉௡−< 𝑉 >)
The deviation from the average cell volume at the nth generation is ∆௡=𝑉௡−<𝑉>.
∆௡ାଵ =
For the cell size to be stable across generations (not blow up to infinity or decrease to zero)
ฬ ௗథ
ฬ < 1 (see pg. 356 in [2] for a simple proof). The red and green lines in the figure below are examples of the function 𝜙(𝑉௡
) which result in cell size converging or diverging over
successive generations. Red trajectories are divergent and green trajectories are convergent.
We are interested in determining the boundary of the growth response where stability breaks
down: ௗథ
= +1 𝑔(𝑉) = 𝑔ା(𝑉), ௗథ
= −1 𝑔(𝑉) =𝑔ି(𝑉). By studying these limiting cases, we know all growth responses 𝑔(𝑉) that lead to stable cell
volumes lie between 𝑔_(𝑉) and 𝑔ା(𝑉). Either: 𝑔ି(𝑉) < 𝑔(𝑉) <𝑔ା(𝑉) or 𝑔ି(𝑉) >𝑔(𝑉)>𝑔ା(𝑉). If this criterion is met, size control takes place.
As 𝑔(𝑉) = 𝜆𝑇(𝑉), if we divide the inequalities by the growth rate 𝜆, we instead interpret this
bound as restricting possible durations for the cell cycle period in response the initial volume 𝑉to ensure cell size is stable across generations. This is profound. The cell is limited in how long it takes to divide.
𝑇ି(𝑉) < 𝑇(𝑉) < 𝑇ା(𝑉) or 𝑇ି(𝑉) > 𝑇(𝑉) > 𝑇ା(𝑉) for stable cell size
In the case of ௗథ
= +1 no matter the initial volume, the cell volume repeats every
What is 𝑉௡ାଵ = 𝜙(𝑉௡
) in this case? (3 marks)
In the case of ௗథ
= −1, no matter the initial volume, the cell volume repeats every two
generations. The cell volume alternates between < 𝑉 > +𝜖 and <𝑉 > −𝜖. What is 𝑉௡ାଵ = 𝜙(𝑉௡
) in this case? (5 marks)
For both the linear and exponential growth models, solve for 𝑔ା(𝑉௡) and 𝑔ି(𝑉௡) by substituting the equation for 𝜙(𝑉௡
) into 𝑉௡ାଵ =
௙ = 𝜙(𝑉௡) 𝑉௡ାଵ =௏೙௘೒(ೇ೙)
௙ =𝜙(𝑉௡). (20 marks)
For both the linear and exponential model of growth, plot 𝑔(𝑉௡
) 𝑣𝑠 𝑉௡. In the plot shade the
regions where cell size is stable across multiple generations: i.e. between 𝑔_(𝑉) and 𝑔ା(𝑉). For growth responses outside these regions cell size either shrinks to 0 or blows up to infinity. Where do 𝑔_(𝑉) and 𝑔ା(𝑉) cross/intersect in the linear model? Where do 𝑔_(𝑉) and 𝑔ା(𝑉)
cross/intersect in the exponential model? Remember 𝑓 > 0. (5 marks)
1. H. Kubitschek, “Linear cell growth in escherichia coli